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 RC-offroading and action photography

Seriously, what else did you expect? ;-)

About a year ago, since I first made up my mind about an interesting and motivating guide to beginners' rc-car photography, I had never expected, that the resulting article would attract so many visitors: "Photoshooting! Your RC-Car: Spectacularily Staged!" was far from a "very special interest aritcle" but  by all means nothing short of a full blown success with more than 10000 readers during the last twelve months - ranking among the Top10 of offroad-CULT's articles.

So it's more than obvious: The show must go on! Once again, it's all about rc-offroaders, cameras and how we can use them for outstanding results. But as the first photoshooting tutorial focussed more on digital fixed lens cameras, this time, the tool of choice is a different animal. It's the digital single reflex camera (DSLR)!

DSLRs, their features and differences compared to fixed lens cameras are best described in Wikipedia's DSLR article, gained tremendous popularity in the last few months. Besides clever marketing on behalf of the cameras' manufactorers, this can be attributed to the ever sagging prices of the camera bodies, which made them feasible to the enthusiastic amateur.
Fixed lens cameras on the other hand, tried to appeal even more to the "point and shooters" but in raw technological terms, they didn't evolve much over the last two years or so. (face/smile/whatever detection - you get what I mean?)
So the serious hobby photographers had nothing left but to catch on the DSLR-train.

And this is, where the DIRTY ARTS special joins in: It's all for the ambitious amateur who is aware of the photographic basics and brings them to use with his recently - or soon-to-be - bought DSLR camera. For those, who lack the practice in photographic bascis and basic terms, there's always offroad-CULT's Photoshooting 1-3. And of course, there are many many forums specialised in digital photography out there - so it's your choice! (But never forget to the knowledge into your photographic experience!)

All external hyperlinks marked like this will be opened in a new browser window!
The following sample shots should be viewed in full size for the best impression! (Click on the pictures to get an enlarged view.)


 Photoshooting starts - with the right equipment!

Be it Canon, Nikon, Sony, Pentax, Olympus or any other manufactorer - almost all of them have DSLR bodies in their line-up, that are up to our needs.
But traditionally, Canon and Nikon are the dominant one's, when it comes to the sports shooting business. Their professional grade cameras have outstanding autofocus capabilities (among others) and this is partly transferred to the lower grade models ot the semi-pro and amateur class.
So if the camera will mostly see action/sports use, models of these two manufactorers should get priority in the decision.
But don't forget that deciding for a manufactorer also means (third parties excluded) choosing the particular lens repertory, in which there are quite a few differences between Nikon and Canon.

The proper lens:
Even more important than the camera body (which are quite capable even up from the 500-600 Euros range) is a lens, that is suited for rc-offroad action-photography. From experience, I can recommend a zoom lens with around 70-200mm of focal length for the typical 1,6 - 1,5 crop cam. More range is always better, but it comes at a hefty premium.
The lens focus mechanism should be driven by an ultrasonic motor (USM, AF-S, SDM, SWM, SSM designation) for a quick and precise focus lock.
Contrary to Nikon, (and most probably any other manufactorer) Canon has a very attractive F/4 lens in the 70-200mm range.
Canon's EF 70-200 F/4 L USM is substantially lighter and more affordable than the F/2.8 lenses without sacrificing neither optical quality nor focus speed.
Both are extremly important, since we'll often have to rely on 100% crops (one pixel of the camera's sensor translates into one pixel on your monitor) with our quick offroaders. At this level of detail, any focussing issues or optical flaws are mercilessly revealed.
The lens' smaller maximum aperture doesn't matter in most situations: Our small models need a high reproduction scale on the camera's sensor (close distance, long focal length). This minimizes the depth of field to a point, where it becomes moot. So after all, the light gain of a more expensive and heavier F/2.8 lens is of little practical use, especially at short distances - but more on that for later!

Another important accessory in rc offroad action photography is a fast flash card - or even better: some of them. Going by the 100% crop thingy explained above, the picture format of choice should be (lossless) RAW, since it doesn't suffer from in-camera JPEG processing with it's artifacts.
Pictures saved in the RAW-format take up more than twice to four times of memory space than JPEGs. Add a continous shooting mode and you can image the amout of data, that has to be processed and saved!

Under normal circumstances, I take about 400 to 500 pictures per shooting. Of course, there's a lot of junk in between. But the camera's display is not sufficient in assessing the sharpness of a picture. So I can only delete pictures that were obvious misses, (grossly blurred or some other shortcoming) and hence, clearing the memory card becomes very ineffective.
What's more, examining pictures on location costs time. Time, that may not be available at all! (Think of a race with a tight schedule).
The bottom line: always carry enough memory cards with you. 400 to 500 RAW photos take up to 4-6 GB of storage.

Memory cards are not created equal!
4GB CF-cards range from 20 up to 80 Euros. (and perhaps even more)
Apart from those el cheapo noname cards, that don't lend themselves particulary well to storing your precious action shots, the different price classes also represent the card's ability to read or write data at a certain speed.
Speedy cards can boost a camera's continous shooting performance dramatically, since it takes lesser time to empty the buffer, and your camera is ready for the next bursts earlier.
It might not be crucial in "standart" photography, but it may be all our nothing in the rc-car business!
Memory cards with a "66x speed" label (compared to the 150Kb/sec single speed CD-rom) or a 133x mark (Sandisk Ultra II and Extreme III in the picture above) work well with current camera models. Slower cards increase the camera's buffer clearing time, whereas faster 266x cards thwart the storage interface of all but the highest end DSLRs. Such cards are (yet) only useful in quickly transferring large amounts of data to the computer - a very potent card reader provided.

Last but not least, I want to recommend a good UV-filter to you. It helps to protect the front glass of the lens from the elements, and despite despite what some purists might be telling, it doesn't deteriorate image quality visibly.
Further more, no scratched or broken front element could justify a theoretically superior image quality!

When buying an UV-filter, be aware to get one that has at least a single, better a multi-coated surface finish.
There are some very cheap, uncoated filters around. They act like ordinary window-glass, and the photos look correspondingly, with reflections and low contrast all around.
Good quality filters cost around 30-45 Euros. But remember, this is hardly a tenth of what a good telezoom lens would cost!
Of course, the filter has to be of the same diameter as marked on lens barrel.
A filter can protect your lens - but to protect your whole camera and equipment, it takes a good photo-bag! Looking at the typical prices from 40 to much more than 100 Euros, it may be tempting, to throw the camera into a backpack, that was last year's advertising gift. Of course, you get one carrying handle for all your equipment, but that's about it. Only specialised photo-bags can protect your precious equipment from bumps, dust and dampness. I recommend visiting (German language, but many photos) for a large selection of photo-bags.


 Just a few moments before kickoff ...

Slowly, the driver's stand gets crowded and the track marshals prepare for the heat. The first few engines start to roar at the remote bashing grounds - those, who leisurely unpack their cameras now, have lost from the get-go.
Photographing beside the track doesn't require very sophisticated preparation work, but zero prep is a good bet for zero success - notably, when you're new to this type of photography.
So in order to not get caught flatfooted, here are two little checklists for you!

  • Battery full and storage card empty?
  • Preferrably RAW-format selected?
    (Alternatively, highest quality JPEG with white balance set to "cloudy" works well, too)
  • Continuous shooting mode activated?
  • Autofocus set to continous/predictive? (AI-Servo, AF-C ...)


  • Autofocus engaged?
  • No focus limiter active?
  • Protective filter and lens hood mounted?

Almost all DSLR cameras feature so called "scene modes". With a flip on the command dial, you can tell your camera whether you're shooting at a party, in the snow, fireworks or even at the Olympic Games (just kidding...)
Everytime I look at the tiny scene-mode symbols, I wonder myself: "How could the camera know, what I want the photo to look like?"
Don't get me wrong here, those scene modes may be an absolute beginner's guide to photography, but I recommend you to use the camera's convential automatic exposure and the manual exposure mode - like described below.

Some cameras can store different aperature and shutter values for their different modes. This is a fact that we take advantage of in programming our own "scene modes". Instead of selecting largely different aperture and shutter values in various shooting conditions on the track, a quick flip on the command dial will do the trick from now on. 
  • Manual Exposure (M)
    Shooting manual requires the RAW-format, since the exposure won't be dead on. This shooting mode will be used as an allrounder. Set the aperture value to one full stop below the maximum aperture (e.g. F/5.6 on an F/4 lens. An F/3.5 - F/5.6 lens gets F/8)
    Shutter speed should be around 1/800 to 1/1600 of a second - more on that for later.
  • Aperture priority (A, Av)
    In aperture priority, set the maximum (largest) aperture possible. The camera will choose the appropriate shutter speeds, that will be the fastest possible.
    With these setting, you're able to get tack-sharp pictures of spectacular moments. The actions seems to be frozen.
  • Shutter priority (S, Tv)
    ... works just opposite to aperture priority: You choose the desired shutter speed, and the camera will select an appropriate aperature.
    The shutter speeds should be around 1/320 to 1/640sec for nice panning shots and if you're working at 200mm and above.
    If your camera rests on a tripod or you enjoy a stabilized lens, (or if you are working at shorter focal lengths around 100mm) you can safely choose 1/160 to 1/250sec. Lower shutter speeds risk blurred shots due to the nature of bumpy offroad-racing.
    In any case, the shutter speeds will suffice to blur anything but your subject and suggest a great sense of speed!

Additionally, you should take care of your cameras autofocus and exposure-meter. As written in the first sketchy checklist, your AF has to be in continous/predictive mode to track moving subjects. Take a look into the instruction manual, if you don't know how to set this AF-mode. (It's called and done differently with every manufactorer.)
Furthermore, you may have the chance to decide between "shutter priority" (Don't confuse that with the automatic exposure mode!) and "focus priority". Shutter priority may have its advantages, but when shooting rc-cars, I suggest focus priority.
On top of that, it's absolutely important to disengage the automatic focus point selection and only work with the center focus point - even though your camera's manual may tell you otherwise.
(The camera's AF-system acquires and tracks subjects on the basis of contrast. With all AF-points activated, it may find higher contrasts besides your subject: Curbs, pipes and stones are particulary good at confusing the autofocus!)

Dealing with the right metering mode, I suggest center weighted, as it usually results in the best exposures with rc-cars filling a good portion of the viewfinder.

Now, your camera may be ready for duty - but you are not! Take a look around the track or area where you're going to shoot: Good positions to take action-photos are corners and turns that are in between two longer straighter: You get speed, you get corner action and overtakes - and you can even get the consequences of late-braking from the more reckless ones ;-) . During a bashing seassion away from the track, you should coordinate with the drivers - and in any case, you should obey a minimum safty distance of about 3-4 metres for 1/10, 4-5 metres for 1/8 and more than 5 metres for the really big guys. (Official events may even impose stricter rules on this.)

Sitting or lying on the ground - preferrably with a camping mat underneath, you're ready for the action to start!


 Ok, Once Again: Ready - Set ... Go?

Yep, but don't press the shutter yet! With the exposure modes set, you need to choose an appropriate ISO-sensitivity for your shooting conditions.
In aperture-priority (with the maximum aperture set) you should at least get an 1/2000 sec exposure from 1/10 buggies on the starting grid. With stadium trucks or even bigger IC models, the shutter speed can be somewhat lower at around 1/1600 or even below. As you set the according ISO-value, all other shooting modes, we've set up before, are dialed in too.
Don't be afraid of high ISOs: today's DLSR cameras can deliver almost flawless picture quality at ISO-400 and ISO-800. On an overcast day, don't hesitate to dial in ISO-1600, though besides, you can decrease your shutter speed to 1/1300 or below.

Tracking RC-Cars
Physics give us a hard time with rc-car action photography. We have to work with large reproduction scales on the image sensor to get really good results. This means large focal lengths combined with a close distance to the subjects, which doesn't prevent them from rushing past at 30 to 50 km/h. Though this may not sound that impressive in real world terms, with a glimpse through the viewfinder under these circumstances it appears as if we'd be shooting insanely fast 250-500km/h offroaders on an 1:1 scale!

RC-car action photography hence requires superior focus on your subject - and I recommend to do the formal composition on your computer afterwards. (With today's high pixel count DSLRs, there's always some space for cropping.
It's far more important to keep the center AF-point over your subject, which gets more difficult, the closer the rc-car approaches.
To avoid this, beginners tend to keep their subject small in the viewfinder. (e.g. zooming out on approach) While this is effective for tracking fast subjects, it also cancel out the chance for real big and impressive action-shots.

To get "the best of both worlds", you can use a red dot sight on your camera's hot shoe.
This handy device (borrowed from the sports shooters - cheap models will do just fine for our needs) projects a red dot on its front glass that appears to be superimposed on your subject.
So you can use the red dot sight as an alternative viewfinder with a much broader field of view, while at the same time working at the longest focal length of you lens.

In order to calibrate the red dot sight to your camera, you should point the center AF-mark on a distant object (e.g. a spire) and adjust the

sight's winding and elevation accordingly, so that the red dot points at exactly the same position.
Working with an RDS requires some practice, too as you arbitrarily choose your focal length. Additionally, the RDS is about 10 centimetres off the lens' axis, so you should always keep the red dot slightliy above your subject. It may feel tedious in the beginning, but I'm sure you'll quickly get the hang of it!

Red Dots also greatly help in poor lighting conditions (more on that for later) or when you're distracted by the viewfinder blackout during continuous bursts.

For the basics below, I want to rely on viewfinder-photography. The illustrations represent a view through the finder with emphasis on the main subject's scale. The procedure lends itself to panning shots as well as stopped motion shots. (according to the settings we took for aperture and shutter priority modes)
Furthermore, the drawings apply, no matter which focal length you're using - you just have to get closer or farther away from the action.

Phase 1: Decide on Your Subject.
You should decide on your subject as early as possible, even though it hardly appears larger than an AF-point mark through the viewfinder.
Spontaneity might be a virtue in general - here, it's not.

Phase 2: Engage the Autofocus
As soon as your subject grows clearly bigger than the central AF-mark, it's time to engage your cameras autofocus.
Though there's usually a high chance of many consecutive in-focus shots, it doesn't make sense to take pictures yet, since your subject would merely be 400 to 600 pixels wide.
Furthermore, you lose some creative DOF control over the distance, and dust in the air decreases picture quality substantially.
Phase 3: Concentration is the Key!
Phase 3 is paticularily delicate since you have to keep your center AF-point on the subject at all costs - otherwise, the focus will get caught in the surroundings.
Your subject still isn't large enough through the viewfinder, so little unexpected movements on the driver's side and the photographer's not-careful-enough reaction can throw the subject off.
Phase 4: Getting Serious
With a camera capable of 5fps bursts, your subject now is close enough to safely fire away - especially if you're shooting across from the apex of a turn.
This will get you 2-3 good pictures of a reasonably sized subject.
Phase 5: Just the Right Moment
As the rc-car closes in, it's getting really difficult to keep it in the viewfinder frame, since there are only a few centimetres (in real terms) left at the borders. Additionally, close subject tracking is most difficult for the camera's autofocus, and manufactorers' limits on tracking speed are exceeded on a regular basis. So, prepere for lots of digital scrap, but hang on! Sharp shots at this distance are one of the most impressive of our favourite offroaders!

Although these five phases are quite leasurely described, at most a few seconds pass by between phase 1 and phase 5. Between the critical phases 3 to 5, it's only a snatch. So, the process above almost has to become your second nature - and that means practice, practice and even more practice. I understand that this doesn't sound very uplifting - but your ever ever improving results will!

A Small Excursion to Indoor Photorgraphy
Due to numerous requests, here are a few lines on one of the most difficult subjects: indoor sports photography using large reproduction scales
  • Flash photography
    Photographing with a powerful external flash, it's important to understand that you may need high-speed synchronisation when your desired shutter speeds exceed 1/180 to 1/250 of a second. (refer to your manual on this one)
    High speed synchronisation greatly reduces the flash's guide number which cancels out most creative uses of the flash. But you may still use a diffuser to soften the harsh flash light a bit.
    If you're comfortable with the lower shutter speeds up to X-sync, you should set your camera to synchronisize the flash with the second shutter curtain which creates nice motion tracks under sufficient ambient light. (I'm not very fond of flash photography, so I could only demonstrate this using my onboard flash and a microsizer ;-) )
  • Available-light action photography:
    The term might sound funny, but it gets even wierder as tiny rc-cars are involved. With available light photography, you'd normally use a very fast (fix focal length) lens with a maximum apertue of F/1.4 to F/2.0. Apart from these lenses costing a fortune in the 200mm range, the big aperture is of little use when it comes to rc-cars, since it thins out the DOF to a point where only a tyre or a shock tower would be in focus with the rest grossly blurred.
    At F/4 or, if you're farther away and accordingly equipped, F/2.8 the DOF won't be a problem, but now, the ambient light level is!
    To compensate, most DLSR cameras offer ISO sensitivities of up to 1600 oder 3200 (and even more on the current high end models)
    But even ISO-3200 sometimes isn't enough. Your only chance is to underexpose the pictures 1-2 f-stops and - shooting RAW of course - push them prior to the JPEG-conversion in your RAW-converter of choice. This effectively creates ISO-6400 and ISO-12800 with prominent noise - but hey, they're good for small prints and web use.
    Additionally, no flash picture can under these circumstances capture the mood of the original scenery.
    The following sample shots should demonstrate this, though "offroad" ist a bit tentative here ;-)
    All pictures were shot using a red dot sight, because the viewfinder through an F/4 lens is too dim for such things.



(Pictures taken from the Vienna Toy Fair 2007 - more pictures available here!)


 Dirty Arts Deluxe

As you master the basics of rc-offroad action-photography, it's about time to turn towards the artistic and aesthetic aspects of the matter. Now it's shouldn't be your only goal to shoot technically good photos. You should aim to do photos, that are emotionally stirring - at least with us rc-enthusiasts!
The following pieces are ment to inspire. They should encourage you to experiment on your own. Do not understand them as a "how-tos", because they are not. Instead, be creative and develop your own style!

The DOF-Game
One of the major differences between DSLRs and digital fixed lens compact cameras is their relation to the depth of field. Whereas compact cams usually have a very large DOF, it can get quite shallow with the bigger imaging sensors of DLSR cameras.
To further enhance the vivid impression, an out of focus foreground can be added to the picture - a staple of almost any book on photography.
This can be carried to extremes, when the main subject itself is partly out of focus. The amount of blurring depends on the photographer's likings - here are three examples from moderate to extreme.

(Click on the pictures for an enlarged view!)

An rc-car speeding towards the photographer may look may look more striking if it enters the front DOF-border instead of leaving the rear one - as if it is trying to push the DOF along.
Consequently, it's just the other way round when the model car is moving away from the camera.

Depth of field and its position relative to the main subject is always going to be a design element and hence is implicitly used in the following examples.

Dynamics and Statics Fused
High shutter speeds can freeze almost any motion which results in spetacular pictures, that we could never percieve first hand with our own eyes.
But as any motion in a shot is stopped, the whole picture starts to look quite unnatural, sometimes maybe even feeble.
To combat this, you'll have to carefully select a shutter speed that stops most, but not any motion going on in a paticular scene. Here are three examples that retain some motion - sometimes subtly, sometimes more obvious.

(Click on the pictures for an enlarged view!)

Panning shots get boring after some time - at least those "me too" shots: Rc-car in side view, with everything else smeared, suggesting the surroundings move very fast. Or wait, could it be the offroad-racer that is moving?

Tilted Motion Tracks
Motion smearing that is of a different direction to an rc-car's percieved motion or at least not parallel to the picture's borders have a lot going for it.
But technically, it's a lot harder to complish as the speed needed to pan along with the subject is reduced. However, slower shutter speeds aren't always possible due to the bumpy nature of offroad-racing.
So those kind of shots work best on high speed straights or during drifts.

(Click on the pictures for an enlarged view!)

... or one could simply tilt the camera - which in conjunction with an inclined incidence of light results in really trashy looking offroad-action!

(Click on the picture for an enlarged view!)

Now for something totally different, though even more important:

Perspective Magic
The shots below represent almost the same scene - although with a dramatically different impression.

The Magic, that grants picture two such a great sense of depth is called "Wide angle". (in this case, 28mm equiv. but cropped)
Up until now, we agreed that the best focal length is your lens' maximum focal length. But whenever your subject seems lost, hanging in the air without reference points, wide angle shots restore these references and gently exaggerate proportions.

Wide angle shots aren't technically demanding on your camera. Just pre-focus on a point, your subject may pass. A large DOF thanks to a short focal length (and maybe even a small aperture) helps in covering up minor focus issues.

However, impressive wide angle shots are dangerous to take - please read on at the right!

Safty first!
(Relatively) tiny RC-Cars require a very close shooting position to get a big image. In fact, you have to get much closer than a resonable safty margin would call for. (sometimes closer than half a
metre, to be precise..)
Additionally, the wide field of view distorts the perception of speed, and with the camera right at your eye, there's much more at risk than your equipment.
NEVER do such "stunt-shots", until you're really comfortable with wide angle lenses, your shooting locations and the drivers involved!

Closing this little bag of tricks, things get technical again: I already recommended shooting in RAW-format serveral times earlier. As you may know, RAW has at least 16 times more picture data than plain JPEG. You'll hardly notice this impressive amount of additional data, until you really work with RAW-pictures: Without (relevant) loss of quality, it's possible to fine tune the exposure, accentuate highlights/shadows or ... tweak the white balance!

Shooting with the "automatic white balance", your camera will always try to show white things as white - shifting any other color accordingly.
But what, if a scene doesn't include anything "really" white? Let's take a sheet of paper for example. In the light of the afternoon's sun, we'd still call the paper's color "white", though we understand that it looks more yellowish - in this paticular case.
A camera doesn't feature such a dual chromatic adaption, so it will always try to render "white" as white, unaffected from the actual illumination.
This can lead to dull images with poor color saturation (compared to the visual impression) despite blazing sunshine.
Shooting JPEG, you can always dial in the "cloudy" preset white-balance. But the RAW-format permits you to fine-tune the white balance on your monitor - obviously, with even better results!
Let's have a look at the last two pictures again: First, that's how it came out of the camera using AWB. The second one got a boost in white-balance up to 7000K (Kelvin, color temperature)

Trick question: "Now which picture gets the mood of a hot summer afternoon better across?"

The AWB-guess results in really pale, bluish colors, whereas the fine-tuned RAW-picture brings the scenery to life.

Using JPEG, this wouldn't have been possible without quality losses.


 Closing Words
I hope you enjoyed my article on "large size" RC-offroad action photography! This type of photography is lovely and thrilling at the same time. And even though the required camera and lens setup will hardly cost less than about 1000 Euros, the results are absolutely rewarding, no matter if they're used as desktop background, as A3+ prints to decorate your hobby room's walls or as web posters. RC-offroad action-photography means taking pictures of our model racers in a way, that we can't percieve with our own eyes. And this is, what makes this subject such a special aspect of our hobby - try for yourself!

Text and pictures by Aaron Banovics
This article has been published at on 05-02-2008.

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